Wolf Association Sweden
WAS

Wolf & Fact

WOLF

The wolf is a predator, animals has been refined for generations in the balance between predator and prey. When the last ice age had released its grip on Scandinavia, for about 10 000 years, the wolf came to our region.

The wolf was once the world's most widespread mammals, which occurred north of North America and Eurasia. Wolves tend to have difficulty adapting to the human impact of habitat. Wolves are less able to adapt to an expanding civilization than such coyote (prärievarg). Moreover, persecution of the species affected population reduction.

Although wolves do not risk extinction, so local populations are still threatened. A threat to these consist of genetic erosion due to the fragmentation conditioned populations. Humans have isolated pockets with small populations that are then affected by inbreeding. Studies have shown that reproductive rate in wolves is strongly related to genetic diversity.

The wolf was spread across Europe during 1700 century but became extinct in the mid and northern Europe 1800 century. The largest population is now in Russia, Poland and the Balkans. Scattered populations are found in Portugal, Spain, Greece and Italy. Natural reestablishment also occurs in France, Germany, Finland, Norway and Sweden.

Under the Berne Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats that member states have signed on so it seems the species generally stable. However, not all. Lack of acceptance, often because of concerns about attacks on livestock, competition for ungulates for hunters and löshundsjakten. Hunting Press and illegal hunting are the main factors limiting the European wolf population.

Wolves are also in the Middle East, Arabian Peninsula, In the event that, China and Mongolia in small scattered populations.

The wolf's range stretched past from large parts of North America north of Mexico City. Canada and Alaska have stocks with thousands of individuals who are in excellent biological fitness. The wolf has expanded into the Rocky Mountains since the 1970s, south to Montana, Washington, Idaho and Wyoming. It has also been introduced in Yellowstone National Park and Apache National Forest.

The wolf in Alaska, Canada and Eastern Europe is about 160 centimeters long, at the shoulder 80 centimeters high and having an approximately 50 centimeters long tail. These wolves weigh up to 80 kilogram. The smallest are in the Arabian Peninsula and in nearby regions. Their length is at 80 centimeters and weight at 20 kilogram. The tail is about 30 centimeters. Honor is between 3 and 12 percent less than males and have 20 to 25 percent lower body weight.

The coat color varies greatly. There are white, cream, reddish, yellowish, gray and black individuals. In temperate areas of Europe and Asia are mostly grayish while in the Arctic regions is mostly black or white. The underside is pale or bright white. Often the wolves back darker than their tail, buk, ears and nose.

It is very difficult to distinguish the wolf tracks from the track of the dogs. Often it is necessary to follow the track a long distance (preferably several km) in order to be reasonably sure that there are wolves and not a loose dog to track. When tracking on snow leaving large hanvargar a track mark of 10-12 cm excluding chlorine. Get the dogs are so big paws. Northern European wolves also has a stride length of at least 140 cm on hard, level surface trot, which is rarely matched by dogs. However, there are wolves with tiny paws, and a normal varghonas paws are no bigger than a large dog.

Wolf tracks often go straight (purposefully) while domestic dogs usually run crisscross. This behavior does not always, because the wolf also can make irregular promise, and dogs can also be determined.

To trace the characters are also counted droppings and urine markers. A wolf does not eat the kind of food that a dog these days. It feeds on flesh and bones. The droppings thus differs from the dog, that usually is fed with pellets that are adulterated with vegetarian content. When the wolf eating a lot of bones, becomes the stool completely white.

Urine marks of wolf look the same as the dog, but the wolf is only the alpha pair who has the right to lift the leg when urinating. The other herd members (also males) squatting and urinating as dog bitches. In mid-winter, when the female runs, may find traces of blood in the urine markings, then you know that it is the wolf who had been there (dog females urinates crouching.

Social behavior
Sometimes encounter one lonely wolves in the wild but the most common life form is the herd or family group as they currently prefer to call it. The wolf herd consists of parental couple (alpha-animals), their årsvalpar and former kids. The number depends on food availability. In Sweden, a normal sized wolf territory between 75 000 and 200 000 hectare.

Wolves howl to gather the flock (usually before and after hunt), to warn (especially at the lair), to locate each other during bad weather or in unfamiliar terrain and to communicate over large distances.

Howling is to convene flock to kill a replacement is long and soft. When pursuing prey is ylningen higher and vibrates between two tones. When they approach the change combined a card to be and yl. Single wolves usually avoid howling in areas where there are other flocks. Wolves from different geographic areas may howl in different ways. The European wolves have a more prolonged and melodic howling than the North American wolves, whose howling is louder and stronger emphasis on the first syllable.

Hunting and food
Hjortdjur, is the primary. Moose, deer and clean is the most important game animals in Scandinavia are also beavers, hare, wild boar and badgers.. In North America, wolves live primarily on deer, bison and clean. Usually directed wolf attacks on old and pathological changes, and against juveniles. Larger prey bites the first in the stomach and small changes can be killed by a bite to the head or shoulder. Nearby people also fall cattle, domestic cats and domesticated dogs prey to wolves. Young wolves take insects (especially beetles) as food. In periods with less access to food eating wolves even carrion and biological waste. The wolf is a pure carnivore, but can eat berries and grass digestive sake.

According to current research needs a wolf 500 to 800 kg food per year. On average, eat an individual two kilograms per day but there are long periods where the wolves are hungry. A full-grown wolf can eat 8-9 kg of meat in one day but usually eats only 2,5 to 6 kg.

In a Swedish study by SLU wildlife research station in Grimsö are a number of adult wolves from ten territories tagged with GPS transmitters studied wolf summer hunting in detail. It appeared that 96% of the biomass consisted of elk. By 199 wolf killed cadavers were 148 moose, 9 deer, 5 beavers, 10 badgers, 6 harar, 20 birds (mainly black grouse and capercaillie) and a calf from cattle. Of the moose was 133 calves and 15 annual moose.

Another predationsstudie showed that 43% the deer population in the territories were killed during the winter months.

Propagation
Mating takes place in February-March and the 5-6 young are born in a den after 65 days. It is only the alpha female who runs and gets kids. Young wolves are sexually mature until the age of two, but breed in general, not until their third year of life, and can stay with their parents until. Older juveniles assist parents in the upbringing of the younger juveniles. When ungvargarna become sexually mature leaves in the generally flock and are looking for their own territory.

Puppies development
At birth, they weigh about 500 and g is, blind, deaf, mörkpälsade, has small ears, round head, “blunt” nose, little or no odor, they are unable to control their own body temperature, motor capacity limited to slowly crawl, mainly with the front legs and sucking and licking, have a good sense of balance, taste, and can whine and bark, suckling pups line four or five times a day for periods of three to five minutes.

On average females increases females over kilo. males and about 1,5. per week for the next fourteen weeks. This time is known as “period of maximum growth.”
Transition – from opening the eyes until the 20 – 24 days
• 2 weeks – eyes open and is blue in 11-15 days, but the vision is poor and they can not perceive shapes until weeks later, milk incisors present (15 days) and can start eating small pieces of meat as those of adults; begin to stand, go, snarl and chewing, only now high-frequency attempt howling.
socialization Period – from 20 – 24 days until about 77 days
• 3 weeks – beginning to appear outside the den and play near the entrance, hearing begins (~ 27 days, ears begin to rise, ~ 31 days, Ears are set up, but with peaks tilting down), canines and premolar teeth present.
• 4 weeks – Weighs 5-6 kg, Growth of adult hair around the nose and eyes, start taking the conformation of adults with disproportionately large feet and head, high frequency yl stronger, the mother can go out for hours hunting. Dominance- and blow target games begin.
• 5 weeks – gradual weaning begins. Can follow the adults up to one mil from the den.
• 8 weeks, disproportionately large feet and head.
• 8-10 weeks – Adults abandon the den and move the kids to rendezvous spot, weaning is complete, cubs feeding on the food from the adults, adult hair becomes visible on the body.
• 8-16 weeks – Eyes gradually change from blue to yellow-gold.
Juvenile period – from 12 weeks to sexual maturity
• 12 weeks – Starting to accompany adults on the lookout for a moment and go back to the rendezvous place by themselves.
• 3,5 months – “period of rapid growth (14-27 weeks)” begins: puppies increase by about 1,3 kg. per week for the next three months.
• 4-6 months – Milk teeth are replaced, winter hair or wool becomes apparent.
• 6 months – Puppies begin to accompany adults on hunts, puppy look almost indistinguishable from adults.
• 7 months – “period of slow growth (27-51 weeks)” begins: the females increases with approximately £ 0,07. per week and the male puppies will increase approximately £ 0,4. per week, cubs begin to follow the herd.
• 7-8 months – Actively begin hunting.
• 1 years – epiphyseal brosk sluts, which marks the end of skeletal growth.
• 22 months – sexual maturity

A wolf pack is a family
A wolf pack is almost always a family with one couple, the p k alfaparet, and their puppies. Young are born in early May and a litter usually consists of 4-6 kids. When the puppies are barely a year wandering the majority off to find their own home area and hopefully a life partner. It happens, however, that one or more young wolves stay and help the parents to take care of the new litter for another year.

For people who have traditionally been hunters, t ex North American Indians, the wolf is admired for its ability to hunt, and called “Brother Wolf”. The feeling of brotherhood has also been strengthened by the similarity with the “the knowing man” has treated the wolf and America's indigenous people.

Wolves are protected in Sweden
When the wolf of peace called for in Sweden, as late as 1966, there were only a few animals, probably less than 10, left. After a tentative start in the 1980s, the wolf in Scandinavia started to regain their old hunting grounds. A big setback for the wolf in Sweden when the government in January 2010 gave the green light for license hunting of the species. The wolf's chances of survival today depends on our people want to share living space and forest prey.

Wolf attacks on humans
Wolf Attacks fatalities are rare but still occur, particularly in India. In modern times in the West has few definite cases documented. Wolves with rabies are more prone to attack people and behave as completely different than wolves that hunt for food. A wolf with rabies bites often many people in the same attack, while hunting wolves concentrating on a change.

It is amazingly little that is quality assured, and there is a huge amount that is angled. In principle, there is no proper compilation made but one must look around. Take as eg the two attacks that happened in America in the 2000s, one is well documented but around the other, there is much confusion. It is clear that a man died but then if this was a case of accident or possibly a bear or wolf attack that killed the different opinions about. Both bears and wolves were the body was really the only thing that could be determined, but the actual cause of death, and what caused it is therefore divided on the “experts”. And yet so often used the case as an example of a fatal wolf attack. There are numerous such examples around the globe. In India, for example, so often reported all-natural deaths wolf and tiger attacks because they are so poor and can get what for them is big money in case the shit a predator attack.

Another example is in the F.D. Soviet states awash with flocks of wild dogs, that very often kills both cattle and animals. That, combined with abysmal crime scene investigations and often total lack of forensic investigations conducted by the local police sometimes leads to wolves are blamed for the dogs messed with. Especially when out in the countryside, where they are still very much alive with the same delusions of wolves as we had here in the old days.

To say that these attacks are the facts become difficult if they are not quality assured. However, one can say that the wolf is a predator and that it can actually happen attacks on humans although it is rare for healthy wolves killing people.

Attacks on livestock and stray dogs are often ( in Sweden) well documented and quality assured. Many livestock attacks, mainly to get, is usually caused by poor fencing. Predators resistant fencing has proven effective, but nothing is a hundred percent safe. Hunting dogs in wolf territory or where the wolf is a risk that humans are responsible for. Wolves follow their natural instinct to guard their territory and protect their pups against intruders and sees the dog as a threat.

Wolf Attacks in Sweden:
Gysinge wolf: Wolf is probably identical to the cub caught 1817 and held in captivity on the Gysinge estate for several years until it might have escaped or may have unleashed. The series of attacks began on 30 december 1820. During a three-month period were attacked 31 people, which resulted in 9 dead and 15 damaged. The injured were mostly children, with the exception of a youth on 18 years.

The only death in Sweden in modern times was the 17 June 2012 when an animal keeper was killed by socialized wolves in captivity at Kolmarden Zoo.

Did you know that
– between the years 1827 and 1839 killed on average 520 wolves per year in Sweden. Then there was the wolf in all regions, except Gotland.

Stats

Number of wolves in Sweden: Based on preliminary survey results, the total Swedish wolf population size estimated at 172-208 wolf individuals in Sweden winter 2008/2009. Read more: Inventeringsrapporter

Spread: The wolf is in central Sweden, with the densest concentration Varmland, Dalarna, Örebro and Gävleborg.

Parliamentary national targets: A stage 20 litters per year, or about 200 individuals. The goal of the tribe spread is that it naturally spreads across the country, but the regeneration of the reindeer herding area is limited to areas outside the so-called year-round land.

Read more: Parliamentary target for predators

Hotkategori: Critically endangered (for more information: Search wolf in ArtDatabanken)

Trend: The Swedish wolf population is continuing to growth. Wolves are generalists and very easy to adapt to different environments. We can therefore expect that the wolf population expanded both north and south.

historical: The wolf once colonized our country simultaneously with the wild reindeer after the last Ice Age over 10 000 years. Wolf population size over the years have varied with the availability of prey, mainly cloven. In recent centuries, the variation mainly caused by humans. Bounties on wolves were introduced 1647 and ways to kill the wolf, many. During the mid-1800s declined significantly strain. Increased hunting pressure combined with poor access to food were probably the main reasons for this. During most of the century was, however, wolves in nearly all of Sweden (Öland and Gotland exempt). Then thronged wolves away to montane areas in the northernmost counties.

1965 there were probably fewer than ten wolves in Sweden. This led to the wolf called for peace 1966. During the 1970s, wolves were reported sporadic occurrences in Varmland, Dalarna, Härjedalen and adjacent areas in Norway. These were followed, however, never up properly. During the 1980s there was at least six litters in Sweden, but the total number of wolves did not increase significantly when many were victims of traffic and illegal hunting. Only a few years into the 1990s, growth began to take off in earnest with more established couples and some regeneration.

Source: Viltskadecenter, Grimsö Research SLU, 730 91 Riddarhyttan.

Facts about Wolf
Today is the wolf, particularly in Central Sweden. Years 2009/10 reported provisionally 21 secure regeneration in Sweden and the border region with Norway. In addition, there were 2 uncertain regenerations.

Way Point:
20 litters per year, corresponding to approximately 200 individuals. In addition, the parliament has set a ceiling of 210 Wolves.

Number of litters 2009/2010: 21 secure regeneration, 2 probable.

Available today:
In central Sweden, with the densest concentration Varmland, Dalarna, Orebro, Gavleborg, Västmalands and parts of Bay State.

Trend:
The wolf has previously grown slowly. The rate of increase in recent years has been about 1-2 litters, vargkullar, per year. Parliament has decided that the wolf population should be kept at a level not less than 20 regeneration and while not exceeding 210 Wolves. Therefore allowed a licensed hunting to limit population growth.

Main food:
Moose is the main prey. Wolves also eat deer, beaver, Badger, pure and various small mammals. The wolves that appear in the reindeer herding area often takes reindeer.

Contact: Klas Allander
Source: Environmental Protection Agency

Fear of predators
There is widespread concern about wolves and bears in the Swedish population. What psychological factors are behind this?

The purpose of the project is to gain a deeper understanding of people's fear of wolves and bears and to describe the consequences of the fear of public reaction to various protection- and management measures. Our previous studies have shown that people who express a high degree of fear of large carnivores are also less willing to support measures to preserve them.

Based on psychological theory considering the project in both evolutionary and social factors in fear. A survey of the subjectively experienced fear and acceptance of management measures of wolves and bears conducted among 800 Swedes living in predator areas. Data collected at four locations with documented differences in the experiences of wolves and bears. The questionnaire study identified 16 participants in each place that exhibit different patterns in their fears. These individuals are invited to participate in a laboratory study of psychophysiological and behavioral fear responses.

The results provide guidance on how people's fear of wolves and bears should be addressed in the practical work of wildlife management. The results are relevant to politicians and officials involved in predator management and for locals in predators areas.

Via the Wildlife Protection Fund has over the years 2009-2011 assigned 1 500 000 SEK for the project.

Contact: Maria Johansson
Lunds university
Source: Environmental Protection Agency

Trends in a population is illustrated with advantage over periods of at least three years. Although the number of documented regeneration of wolves in Sweden is less than the previous year, the growth in the wolf population remained positive for the past three years.

The number of documented wolf litters born 2011 is 25 compared with 28 for 2010, which is 12 % fewer.

Number of family groups during the winter, 30 for winter 11/12 compared with 28 winter 10/11 which is 7 % more.

Number documented territorial marking pair is 25 winter 11/12 compared with 23 winter 10/11 which is 9 % more.

Number of documented family groups and pair during winter is 55 for winter 11/12 compared with 51 winter 10/11 which is 8 % more.

Migration of wolves from Finland / Russia
No new wolves from the Finnish-Russian population has been discovered during the inventory season.

The wolf of Finnish Russian origin has been established in Galven-territory within the county and received 3 litters (2008, 2009, 2010) During the season 2011/2012 demonstrated through DNA in a new territory (No. 61, fig 6) north of Galven-territory with a new partner. Wolf is stationary in the new area. The female is a Finnish Russian origin who discovered last season inventory has been fixed in a territory marking couple in Idre but was at the end of the survey period 11/12 re hiking. The wolf was recorded in March in California through DNA analysis of droppings.

Famous Finnish-Russian wolves in Sweden as well known desktop offspring from the Finnish-Russian wolves in Sweden, and a Finnish Russian wolf in Norway (introducing reviret).

Wolf in the reindeer herding area
Stationary occurrence

Two territories containing was his territory marking couple, and a territory containing a group of three wolves (including a territorial marking couple) has been documented. In one of the pairs included a female migrant from the Finnish-Russian population.

hiking Wolves
In addition to the seven individuals who were part of the steady presence has 9 individuals identified through observations of quality assured DNA, GPS positions or through culling. Five of these were identified during regular inventory period for wolf, four during other times of the reproductive cycle 2011. Altogether 16 positively identified individuals affected reindeer herding area. There are also indications of more individuals, but because of vandringsvargars capacity to walk a long way in a short time, it has not been possible to distinguish these individuals from each other without the help of DNA samples.

Subject to the limits of the reindeer herding area is not fully established, the figures above changes depend on border demarcation.

Kill the wolves
Under winter season 2011/12 (October to March) has 20 kill wolves registered with SVA (National Veterinary Institute). Of the 20 killing wolves became 12 subject to culling, 3 operated with the support of 28§, and 5 killed in traffic. In addition, 2 cut off the GPS necklace been recovered from the transmitters animals, and there is another suspected illegal hunting of a radio-marked wolf.

The wolf's spread

The wolf was once the world's most widespread mammals, which occurred north of North America and Eurasia. Wolves tend to have difficulty adapting to the human impact of habitat.Vargar are less able to adapt to an expanding civilization than such coyote.

Although wolves do not risk extinction, so local populations are still threatened. A threat to these consist of genetic erosion due to fragmentation conditioned populationer.Människan have isolated pockets with small populations which suffer xxcx. Studies have shown that reproductive rate in wolves is strongly related to genetic diversity. Isolated wolf populations affected much possitivt already allerer from just an introduced individual.

Besides in UK and on Ireland the wolf was widespread in Europe during the 1700s, but exterminated from all central- and northern European countries during the 1800s and up until the period after WWII. The largest population is currently active in Eastern Europe, mainly in Russia and Romania, as well as on Balkan and in Poland. Remnants of the European wolf population is in Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece, but wolves have also recovered naturally in many parts of Europe and re-colonized France, Germany, Finland, Sweden and Norway.

Populations, appears generally stable or increasing in most, but not everyone, of the countries that signed Bern Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats. Limiting factors in member countries include lack of acceptance (especially in areas where the wolf has been migrated) mostly because of concerns about attacks on livestock and dogs, and competition for wild game for hunters. Hunting Press and illegal jakt are the main limiting factors for the European wolf population.

The information about the wolf population in Middle East is small, except Israel and Saudi Arabia. It is estimated that there are 300-600 wolves Arabian Peninsula, that despite the hunted year round except in Israel, has a relatively stable population mainly protected by that occurs in inaccessible areas such as the mountains in the north and in the north-central desert areas. I In the event that wolf is classified as endangered, and the stock is estimated at 800-3 000 individuals who are scattered in a plurality of isolated populations. I China and Mongolia the wolf is not protected except in specific reserves.

The wolf's range stretched past over large parts of North America north of Mexico City. Today vary their status, countries, Land and region. Canada and Alaska have stocks with thousands of individuals who are in excellent biological fitness. The wolf has been expanding outside Canada to northern Rocky Mountains Since the 1970s,, and has established itself in the south to Montana, Washington, Idaho and Wyoming. 1994 captured from wolves Alberta and British Columbia and introduced into Yellowstone National Park, where the species has been regionally extinct since the 1930s. A similar introduction occurred 1998 i Apache National Forest i Arizona

Canada and Alaska have stocks with thousands of individuals who are in excellent biological fitness.

the wolf has Alaska, Canada and Eastern Europe and is approximately 160 centimeters long, at the shoulder 80 centimeters high and having an approximately 50 centimeters long tail. These wolves weigh up to 80 kilogram. The smallest wolves live on Arabian Peninsula and in nearby regions. Their length is at 80 centimeters and weight at 20 kilogram. The tail is about 30 centimeters. Honor is between 3 and 12 percent less than males and have 20 to 25 percent lower body weight.

The coat color varies greatly. There are white, cream, reddish, yellowish, gray and black individuals. In temperate areas of Europe and Asia are mostly grayish and Arctic regions most black or white. The underside is pale or bright white. Often the wolves back darker than their tail, buk, ears and nose.

It is very difficult to distinguish the wolf tracks from the track of the dogs. Often it is necessary to follow the track a long distance (preferably several km) in order to be reasonably sure that there are wolves and not a loose dog to track. When tracking on snow leaving large hanvargar a track mark of 10-12 cm excluding chlorine. Get the dogs are so big paws. Northern European wolves also has a stride length of at least 140 cm on hard, level surface trot, which is rarely matched by dogs. However, there are wolves with tiny paws, and a normal varghonas paws are no bigger than a gray– or still dog.

Wolf tracks often go straight (purposefully) while domestic dogs usually run crisscross. This behavior does not always, because the wolf also can make irregular promise, and dogs can also be determined. Reasonably likely feral dogs over time become more “calm” (less playful) in behavior and therefore difficult to distinguish from wolves on track. When wolves roam in flocks in deep snow, they often “foot in the foot”. They put then into the paws of each track, so it looks like it only been an animal in the groove. Save a longer distance will sooner or later to a place where they split up. Such tracks run does not leave domestic dogs.

To trace the characters are also counted droppings and urine markers. A wolf does not eat the kind of food that a dog these days. It feeds on flesh and bones. The droppings thus differs from the dog, that usually is fed with pellets that are adulterated with vegetarian content. When the wolf eating a lot of bones, becomes the stool completely white.

Urine marks of wolf look the same as the dog, but the wolf is only the alpha pair who has the right to lift the leg when urinating. The other herd members (also males) squatting and urinating as dog bitches. In mid-winter, when the female runs, may find traces of blood in the urine markings, then you know that it is the wolf who had been there (dog females urinates crouching).

Ecology

Social behavior

Sometimes encounter one lonely wolves in the wild but the most common life form is the herd or family group as they currently prefer to call it. The wolf herd consists of parental couple (alpha-animals), their årsvalpar and former kids. The number depends on food availability. In Sweden, a normal sized wolf territory between 75 000 and 200 000 hectare (ie more than ten square kilometers on average).

The wolf howl is often indistinguishable from the larger dogs howling.

Varghanars howling extends a oktav and ending in a deep bass with the emphasis on “O”, while females produce a modulating nasal baritonton emphasizing “The”. Pups almost never howl but cubs produces a kind howls ending in doglike yapping.

Wolves howl to gather the flock (usually before and after hunt), to warn (especially at the lair), to locate each other during bad weather or in unfamiliar terrain and to communicate over large distances.

Wolves howling may under certain circumstances be heard over an area of 130 km2. Ylningen have a foundation frequency of between 150 and 780 Hz, and covers up to 12 harmony circles overtones. The pitch is usually constant or changes very subtle, and can change direction up to four or five times.

The howling to convene flock to kill a replacement is long and soft. When pursuing prey is ylningen higher and vibrates between two tones. When they approach the change combined a card to be and yl. When the wolves howl together tend to harmonize their different tones.

Single wolves usually avoid howling in areas where there are other flocks. Wolves do not respond to the howling during rainy weather or when they are measured.

Wolves from different geographic areas may howl in different ways. The European wolves have a more prolonged and melodic howling than the North American wolves, whose howling is louder and stronger emphasis on the first syllable. Studies with playback playback shows that ivarjefall North American wolves react to European wolf types of ylningar.

other sounds

Wolves other vocalizations, addition ooling Conduct, usually divided into three categories: morr, and shall din. Must have a fundamental frequency of 320-904Hz, and usually uttered when a wolf is uppkrämd. Wolves do not bark as powerful or long as dogs but barks a few times before it withdraws from a perceived danger.

Growling has a fundamental frequency of 380-450Hz, and uttered the most in the struggle for food. Puppies growls, usually, when they are playing. A variant of ylningen followed by a high-frequency sound yelps which portends an attack. Whimper associated otherwise situations of concern, curiosity, wonder and intimacy greetings, feeding puppies or play.

The wolf and man
culture History

Image

Romulus and Remus with the wolf.

I Greek mythology told that Zeus Wolf in shape to the bath in ArkadienHYPERLINK “http://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Varg”[38] Roms founder, according to the myths, Romulus shall, together with its twin brother Remus, survived thanks to a she-wolf. according to the Nordic mythology had Oden the two gråvargarna Gere and HYPERLINK “http://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gere_och_Freke”Freke in his entourage.

Etymologi

The original word for wolf is a wolf in Swedish. Wolf is a ' noanamn, that is, a euphemism to avoid having to call the animal by its real name. On the other Germanic languages ​​are those with wolf Related words “wolf” in English and German. In germanic called wolf “wulfaz”, but North Germanic languages w at the beginning of words slipped away when followed by O or in. The word originally meant wolf slayer or restrictor. In medieval Swedish meant “vargher” assailant (compare the old legal concept wolf in veum)

Other noanamn the wolf is wolf, tax or the gray. Presumed wolf rich wilderness has often been called tassemarker.

At Wiktionary stated, however,, the wolf even on the Norse called vargh, and under English Wikipedia called wolf on oldpersiska “boats”, on contemporary Persian “gorg” and at the northern Iranian language Mazandarani “Wolf”, just like in Swedish. This is hardly a coincidence, but sources and possible etymological connection is not disclosed.

Status in the world

according to the The World Conservation Union classified species Wolf globally viable. Some populations in both North America and Europe are considered to be threatened according to the assessments that some should have done. In much of the wolf earlier, or current, range, chased or chased, species Aktivt. The wolf must therefore have become extinct in some countries, including UK and Germany, but it keeps on coming back in Germany.

In other countries reducing wolf population of substantially, and the wolf has been protected in several states.

Wolves as pets

In the USA there is the wolf as a pet. Those born in captivity. Wolves are considered more severe trained and more skeptical of obeying people than dogs. The puppies have to be taken from their mother early, otherwise adapted not to live with people.

according to Swedish Species Protection Regulation (SFS 2007:845) get vildlevande predator not be held pet. Even hybrids between domesticated dog and wild canids are banned breed front, import, keep and do with. Equivalent legislation exists in many countries in Europe.

 

 

 

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